جوزف كمپبل در كتاب مهم The masks of God جلد Occidental mythology در فصلThe Cross and the Crescent (صليب و هلال) به معرفي اسلام از ديدگاهي فرهنگشناسانه و mythological ميپردازه. از اين كتاب بزرگ بخشهايي به زبان فارسي ترجمه شده ولي ترجمه كاملي ازاون وجود نداره و خيليها باهاش آشنا نيستند. من مطمئنا قصد ترجمهاش رو ندارم! ولي
خلاصه كوتاهي از اين فصل رو كه به اسلام مرتبطه ميارم. علتشم اينه كه فكر ميكنم نگاهش به جريانات اعتقادي در اسلام نگاهي معقول و جمعبنديهاش قابل دركه.
كمپبل پس از معرفي پايههاي اعتقادي اسلام و زندگي پيغمبر داستان اسلام رو با جريانات اعتقادي بعد از وفات پيامبر پي ميگيره،
مفهوم اسلام ارتدوكس و سنت رو شرح ميده و به اين جمله ميرسه كه به نظر من گويا و تاثيرگذاره:
«God is not Subject to the Law, but above it, not to be known or judged in its terms. Consequently, for those in whom a desire to know as well as to serve God burns, there must be a way beyond the Law, as God himself is beyond it»….
اين اعتقاد منجر به جوانه زدن دو جريان
رازآلود و پنهان در بطن اسلام ميشه كه در برابر سنت قد علم ميكنن:
…»The term Sunna (sunnah) denotes the general, orthodox, conservative body of Islam, for whom the Garment of the Law, as announced and administered by and for the community, the consensus (ijma›) suffices. Two other powerful movements have challenged, however, the absolute authority of this conservative Sunna. They are, first, the Shi’a, also
called Shi’ites (Arabic shi ‹i, «a partisan» [of Ali]), whose politically formulated esotericism bears an aggressive anarchistic stamp, and second, the Sufis (Arabic sufi, «man of wool» i.e., wearing a woolen robe, an ascetic), in whose raptures all the normal themes and experiences of both ascetic and antinomian mysticism have come to roost, ironically, in Islam»….
و سپس به معرفي جريان شيعه ميپردازه:
…»Briefly, the Shi’a position is that the reigning caliphs both of the Umayyad and of the subsequent Abbasid dynasties were usurpers and that, consequently, historic Islam is a falsification: the caliph is a pretender, the Sunna deluded, and the ijma› a false guide. Islam in the proper sense of the Koran resides in the knowledge, lost to the popular community, that passed from the Prophet to Ali and has come down only in the line of the true Imams.
The word imam means spiritual leader and is applied generally to leaders of the services of the mosque, and. more specifically, according to Sunna usage, to the founders of the (our orthodox theological schools; but by the Shia it is applied only to the disinherited, true leaders of the line of Ali and the Prophet. Their known number is but twelve; for somewhere between the years 873 and 880 A.D. the Imam then alive, Mohammed al-Mahdi, disappeared. He is known as the Hidden Imam, is still in this world, and his second coming, as «The Guided One» (mahdi), to restore Islam, is awaited by the faithful. A variant view is that the seventh Imam was the one who disappeared; still another names the fifth. Numerous pretenders to the character have emerged, here and there, at various times, to precipitate political upheavals, » the Mad Mullah of Somaliland,» for instance, and » the Mahdi of the Sudan,»
put down by British troops. Many Shi’a sects exist, in all of which esotericism and politics are explosively combined -the cardinal tenet of all being that both spiritual authority and temporal power properly reside not in the consensus (ijma›) of the Sunna, but in the person of the Hidden Imam, to whom absolute submission is demanded, and in whom alone God is made known. Indeed, in the most extreme of these sects, Ali and his descendant Imams are regarded as incarnations. By all they are held to have been sinless and infallible. And about them there has accumulated an esoteric mythology, shot through with
Christian, Gnostic, Manichaean, and Neoplatonic thought»….
و در اين مسير به شخصيت زن اين جريان ميرسه:
…»Generally in Islam the spiritual character of women is rated very low. According to at least one Shi’a text, they were created from the sediment of the sins of demons, to serve as temptations to sinners. They are not admitted to initiations, and are of value only as vehicles for the entry into the world of spirits condemned temporarily to take on flesh in punishment for their sins; they themselves being, however, without soul. And yet, in the mythology of these sects the person of Fatima, Ali’s bride, daughter of Mohammed and mother of Hasan and Husain, has been transformed into a being- a divine being-antecedent even to the being of her own father. In a recently found Persian Shi’a text of Gnostic affinities called the Omm-al-Kitab, we find the following astonishing visionary narration:
When God concluded with men a covenant at the time of his creation of the material
world, they prayed him to show them Paradise. He showed them. There upon, a being ornamented with a million varicolored shimmering lights, who sat upon a throne, head crowned, rings in the ears, and a drawn sword at the girdle. The radiating rays illuminated the whole garden; and when the men then asked who this was, they were told it was the form of Fatima as she appears in Paradise: the crown was Mohammed; the earrings, Hasan
and Husain; the sword was Ali; and her throne, the Seat of Dominion, was the resting place of God, the Most High.
…In Shi’a sects Fatima’s veneration goes to such lengths that she is even termed the «Mother of her Father,» «Source of the Sun,» and given a masculine name, Fatir signifying «Creator,» the numerical value of the letters of which-290-is the same as that of Maryam, Mary, the mother of Jesus. For, as daughter, wife. And mother, she personifies the center of the genealogical mystery; and at least one Shi’a poet has compared her to the Burning Bush of Moses; to the Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, where the Prophet is supposed to have experienced his Heaven Journey; and to the Night of Power,» when the Angel of Destiny, Gabriel, descending to earth, brought forgiveness to mankind.»
و در پايان نگاهي به اعتقادات مبارزهجويانه اين جريان ميندازه:
«The Shi’a, finally, are dualists, and in their abjuration of the state of the world they approach the Gnostic-Docetic point of view. Persecuted frightfully by the various governments of Islam, they were faced early in their history with the enigma of an evil world in which every loyal lover of God is cruelly destroyed; and from this profound mystery, as Professor Massignon points out, two questions emerged:
- Does the martyrdom of love entail any actual physical suffering, or is the suffering only apparent? and
- What happens after death to the willing victim who permits himself, for love, to be condemned in the name of God?
The Koran states of the crucifixion of Jesus that another, and not he, was hung upon the cross. «They killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them.» The Christian
Gnostics held the same view, as we have already seen. Likewise, according to the Shi’a, martyrs in the cause of Ali suffer only in appearance. Their true bodies are lifted to heaven, while in the hands of their executioners mere substitutes remain. The popular Passion Play of Husain, representing his betrayal and murder at the battle of Kerbala in the year 680, is enacted every year on the tenth day of the month of Moharram. The muezzin cries that morning from the summit of the minaret: «Oh Shi’e, this day is a day of sorrow:
the body of Husain lies in the desert, naked.» But those of extreme Gnostic persuasion give praise that day with joy, since the martyred one could not possibly have suffered, but in his true body returned, that day, to heaven, while an unknown suffered death for him on the field»…
شايد بشه بر اساس سير مطالبي كه كمپبل در پيش گرفته ويژگيهاي اصلي جريان شيعه
رو اينطور خلاصه كرد:
- ماهيت رازورانهesoteric كه به وجود دانش يا عرفان پنهاني معتقده كه در نسل پيامبر منقل شده و از طريق بررسي سنت و
اجماع صرف به دست نمياد و فقط از طريق اتصال به اون حاملان دانش (امامان) قابل دستيابيه
- اعتقاد به منجي پنهان كه آخرين حامل دانش الهيه و انتظار بازگشت اون
- اعتقاد به پاك بودن حاملان دانش از هرگونه پليدي (عصمت) و گاه پاك شدن متصلان به اونها
- اعتقاد به ماهيت اساطيري نخستين زن از زنجيره حاملان دانش و به ماهيت مادرانه اون، و گاه تسري اين ماهيت مادرانه به كل بشريت و اعتقاد به اينكه اون تجلي بشري اين دانشه
- اعتقاد dualistic به مبارزه خير و شر و اهميت مبارزه و شهادت در پيروزي نيروي خير (حسين) بر شر (يزيديان)
دفعه بعد ادامه اين فصل رو كه به معرفي جريانات صوفيانه ميپردازه ادامه ميدم…